Population in India – The Evil and The Good!
Though India is the fastest growing economy in the world, though India is about to become a global superpower in next few decades, she is still plagued by numerous problems. These problems are deeply rooted and uprooting them is not an easy task. One such problem is that of population. It is the second most populous country in this world and is slightly behind China.
Here are some statistics that you may find interesting and of course a bit disturbing:
|Population of India as on September 9, 2016||1,329,753,660 (that’s an estimate of United Nations but it is inaccurate as many hundreds of thousands of births are not registered on a daily basis).|
|Population concentration in India compared to world||17.84% of global population is found in India.|
|Position held in terms of population||2nd in the world.|
|Density of population in India||446 people live in every square kilometer.|
|Total land area in India||2,972,892 square kilometers.|
|Urban vs. rural population||32% is urban, 68% is rural.|
|Total male population in India||About 693 million.|
|Total female population in India||About 649 million.|
|Sex ratio in India||Female:Male = 943:1000, that is 943 females for every 1000 males.|
|Age distribution||Over 50% of Indian population is in the age group 0-25 years.|
|Over 65% of Indian population is in the age group 0-35 years.|
It is estimated that India will take over China in terms of population by year 2025. That is when India will become world’s most populous country.
Is that good? Is that bad? Yes, No, May be?
Okay, let us answer this question for you….
The Evil of Population in India:
Population is a serious challenge. The rate at which India’s population is growing is a big threat to India’s own economy. Why? Because the rate at which the population is growing is far more than the rate at which India’s economy is growing. Put in other words, the income generation opportunities are not growing at a similar rate. What happens in such a scenario? Here is what happens:
- Lack of income opportunities means poverty. Poor become poorer. Without going into details, we will like to point out another problem – rich become richer! This income disparity is difficult to close. As a result, poverty becomes a vicious circle that cannot be easily broken.
- As poverty increases, other social issues pitch in. For example child labor is a major concern. Poor families put their children into work in order to ensure that there is enough food for everyone at home.
- Yet another social issue is that of gender inequality and hence, violation of human rights. Girls are not preferred in Indian families. Female foeticide and infanticide is rampant. Girls who survive that assault, end up with tortures and abuses later in life.
- Pressure on infrastructure is evident. This is evident that there is lack of houses, roads, education facilities, healthcare systems and more.
- Natural resources are over exploited. For example, coal, water, land, forests etc. are all dwindling down quickly to accommodate the growing population.
- Inflation cannot be ignore. Increase in population means increase in demand for sustenance-level goods and services. This is putting pressure on supply lines and hence prices are escalating fast.
What is causing over population in India?
This question is terribly simple. However, the answer to this question is terribly complex. Here are a few reasons:
- Poverty has a multifaceted effect. Poverty means lack of entertainment options. The only entertainment left is sex. That leads to population boom.
- Poverty means, attempts to increase income. It is a thought that more the number of members in family, the greater will be the number of working hands. So what people tend to think is, ‘hey, let’s make some more babies’.
- Not to forget, early marriages are disastrous. Young girls become pregnant early and since they stay fertile for long and keep becoming pregnant.
- Even today India is plagued by male dominance. In families where female children are born, couples keep on reproducing until they get a male child. This has led to population problem as well.
- Of course, there is lack of education which explains the benefits of small families. People simply believe that bigger a family, the better it is.
Is over population always bad? – The Good Side
Well, when everyone keeps saying that too much population is bad, they aren’t wrong. But they do fail to see the greener side. This population boom in India has give her with some really good opportunities. What are those opportunities?
Let us find out…
High manpower availability: Because 50% of Indian population is between 0 and 25 years and because 68% of India population is between 0 and 35 years, India has become a country with world’s largest concentration of youth. Since youth are more energetic and full of ideas, India can count of them to grow quickly and become a developed nation. However, such youth needs to acquire education and skill and currently government is working towards the same motive – generating skilled Indian youth. No need to say that India is world’s largest supplier of man power and more and more foreign companies are realizing that setting up business in India will help them to reduce production and operational costs because of cheap labor. Because more companies are coming in, more Indians are getting jobs and hence, their income levels are increasing too!
Highest concentration of middle class: Because of the humongous population India has world’s largest concentration of middle class people. This has happened because of growth in income opportunities in India, thanks to fast growing economy. Middle class plays an instrumental role in development of a country. Studies have shown that it is not the rich that drive economic growth. It is the middle class that helps to boost economic growth. It has been found that the demand for goods and services is maximum among middle class people. As these people move up in tiers from lower middle class to higher middle class (because of higher disposable income), they demand more. This is when economy grows. Because India has largest concentration of middle class in entire world, India is currently experiencing a massive rate of economic growth.
So, on one hand when too much population is not good, on the other hand, it is good as well. What we need to do now is arrive at an optimal growth rate to minimize the bad impact of excessive population and harness the power of massive man power.