Education System in India
Defining Education: Education is an act or perhaps an experience, which is geared towards shaping the physical ability, character and mind of the person receiving it. It is a method through which a generation passes on its collective knowledge and accumulated values and skill to another generation. Such transfer takes place through kinaesthetic, written as well as verbal skills. Today however, technology has become increasingly integrated into the education system, helping with the delivery of such knowledge.
Types of Education: Education can be broadly categorized into three forms which are mentioned in the table below:
|Formal||Through a trainer in a specific setup and predefined process. Information is organized with suitable evidence. Challenging and debating doubts through controlled controlled experiments and demonstrations is the general process followed.||Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates are given to individuals (recipients of education).|
|Informal||Delivered through curiosity, observations, contemplation and logical reasoning and even experimentation. Real life experiences play a major role. Knowledge or information is not organized.||Mostly self study. Sometimes a trainer may be there but doesn’t play a significant role.|
|Experimental||It is more of practical learning wherein the receiver is an apprentice in a trade or in a profession. Sessions for sharing experiences (using both formal and informal methods) at industry or trade seminars or at work place are conducted. Directives and communication skills development always remain the integral part of this format of education||Usually a certificate is given out upon completion.|
Another Classification of Education: We just learned about the types of education. However, there is yet another way of classifying education, which is shown in the table below:
|Classification||What exactly is it?|
|Primary Education||This is a type of education that one receives under formal education structure. This type of education is provided until the receiver attains the age of 10-11 years. This is all about basic and elementary learning about stuff like language, natural science and mathematics. This is the basic consciousness about environment and society is formed.|
|Secondary Education||This is a step forward where all that has been taught in primary education is magnified in a more detailed oriented format.|
|Tertiary Education||This is highly advanced wherein a person’s financial productivity is nurtured and improved. This is where a person goes through a phase of self-actualization and understands what he or she needs and acquires skills accordingly. This is where a human being is shaped into a professional.|
Education System in India
Now that we have learned the basics of education, we will divert our attention towards the education system that prevails in India. Diverting our attention to Indian education system, we get to see that there aren’t many differences in the overall structure and methodology. However, the system as a whole is plagued by numerous problems that need to be overcome quickly to make the Indian system of education a world-class system.
As we learned before, the education system in India is divided into three-tier system of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary (of Higher) education. Let us take a look at each of them individually.
Primary Education India
India adopted the goal of UEE or Universal Elementary Education. It is also sometimes referred to as Universal Primary Education. This stance was adopted after India gained her independence in 1947. However, it was difficult to implement because of the socio-economic conditions of the nation. Over time, this has succeeded to some extent but yet, there are several difficulties that Indian education system faces at this level. Despite the fact that enrollment in schools has increased for the children of age group of 6-11, the dropout rates are also alarming. Some of the major problems that primary education in India faces are:
- Lack of schools in rural and remote areas of the nation.
- Poverty forcing parents to get children into work (child labor).
- Ever-prevailing prejudice against providing education for female children.
- High dropout rates.
- Lack of teachers and other school staff.
- Absence of at-par educational standards in rural areas compared to urban areas.
- Infrastructure problems like roads and transports, making schools inaccessible for many.
- High dropout rates because of poverty.
- Sub-standard text books.
All these factors make UEE an elusive goal, which is really difficult to achieve. On top of that formalization of primary education is also a major concern as most of the educational initiatives taking place in rural areas are informal by nature.
Secondary Education in India
This is where India has put a lot of focus and it has remained the pivot point. In 1965, the Kothari Commission recommended the existing 10+2+3 format of education. This pattern has since then been implemented in almost every state and also the UTs of the country. There is another challenge. The secondary education system has two streams – the mainstream academic stream and the terminal format of vocational stream. Almost all schools provide academic stream and vocational stream has been neglected. The purpose of vocational education was to ensure early employment and also to cut down the extreme competition which exists for colleges that offer higher education like graduation and post graduation.
Tertiary or Higher Education in India
There are many Universities and colleges in India that offer education. As of now there are 180 Universities and somewhere close to 4,500 colleges spread across various states and union territories that offer technical knowledge and specialized skills. There is however a problem. Because it is up to the states to sanction the opening of new universities and colleges, these educational institutions are increasing at a very fast pace. The result is that the quality of education provided by them is getting diluted and they are failing to offer what is known as character formation for students. The end result is horrific as the number of educated unemployed youth is increasing. This educational boom is raising questions on the qualitative aspect of education in India.
Language of Education in India
While most of the higher education institutions in India are offering education in English, there is a really horrible situation at the bottom. English is not used as the primary language for education in various schools, especially in elementary schools where local languages are used for the basic education. Since they fail to get a grasp over English language from the beginning. This creates enormous problems for those students who start learning in regional or local languages. When they reach secondary or tertiary levels of education, they are faced with the challenge of grasping everything in English, making it difficult for them to cope with the fast-paced and competitive environment. This has to be rectified.
There is much more that can be said about education system in India but the scope of this article prevents us form further elaborating. In case you have any other points to add (which of course you will have), drop us a message.